How many times dividend are declare in mutual funds ,ELSS , or stocks?

I am a new investor , I wish to ask that how many times dividend are declare annually ( in one year ) in any of the mutual funds , ELSS ,or stocks , also I wish to ask if any of the mutual funds are facing loss so also it will declare the dividend or not , can any one say in very simple example how NAV is calculated , please help me .
please some body give me some more details .

What is meant by a dividend yield (mutual) fund?

There are some mutual funds specially denoted as “Dividend yield funds”. Can anybody please explain how these are different from diversified equity funds? It seems dividend yield funds can be of large or mid and small cap in nature. What type of investors should be interested in investing in these and with what aim? Are these good for long term growth?